The second industrial revolution in pig farming

Pig farming market share in Vietnam

In recent years, pig farming in Vietnam has taken up a significant proportion of the overall livestock sector and, by extension, the country’s agriculture industry. The investment in pig farming, including scale and technology, has accounted for a substantial share, surpassing that of other livestock sectors.

thị phần nuôi heo tương lai.

Pig farming market share in the future.

 

Pig farming in Vietnam has undergone significant transformations and is poised for a strong breakthrough in the second livestock industry revolution (the first occurred in the 1990s), starting in the early 2020s. Currently, Vietnam ranks among the top 5 countries globally in terms of pig farming.

This article focuses on two main aspects: (i) New technologies, understood as either old technologies still efficiently applied in Vietnam, with no newer alternatives, or entirely new technologies. (ii) Some trends and technologies related to seeds, feed, farm housing, and solid waste treatment will also be discussed.

In reality, recent technologies are précised by the term “Precision.” This implies that previous technologies were not inaccurate but rather not entirely precise. Therefore, current technologies aim to enhance precision.

Breeding technique with precision

Although they make up about 2–6% of manufacturing expenses, seeds can increase productivity and efficiency by up to 40%. Nowadays, breeding relies on a combination of modern genetics (molecular genetics—MAS, next-generation sequencing or gene editing, QTLs, etc.) and the fundamentals of classical genetics (quantity and population—BLUP method). Molecular genetic markers (Microarray kits) are gradually becoming commercially available.

Presently, breeding selection leans towards quality,  guaranteeing consumer health and disease resistance. This enhances environmental resilience and reduces antibiotic usage in the rearing process. Additionally, breeding management aims to optimize environmental conditions for maximum productivity.

Sự đóng góp của di truyền cổ điển và di truyền hiện đại vào giá trị giống.

Contribution of classical and modern genetics to seed value.

 

Advancements in basic genetics owe much to classical genetics – data on purebred lines, seed/pedigree levels, and other information channels are recorded, connected, and analyzed according to traditional models (slaughterhouses, meet seed and breeding seed buyers). Recently, breakthrough genetic technologies have produced disease-resistant strains.

For example pigs resistant to E.Coli F18, and upcoming ones like pigs resistant to PRRS through CD163 gene editing to prevent viral incursion. This improves accuracy, efficacy, and selection optimization while facilitating speedier genetic selection and improvement work.

Mô hình chọn tạo heo kháng tai xanh thông qua công nghệ chỉnh sửa gen.

Breeding pigs resistant to “Blue Ear Pig” disease (PRRS) through gene-editing technology

 

Advanced feeding technique

Feed technology uses fermentation, microbiology, pharmaceutical extraction, microencapsulation, and other techniques to target biological or natural source ingredients (probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, herbs, antioxidants, etc.) in order to replace or reduce the need of antibiotics, growth stimulants, and other chemicals. hence safeguarding the health of customers, assisting cattle in developing resistance, and improving biological value, digestion, and absorption.

Mô hình công nghệ phối trộn thức ăn khô và lỏng cũng được thiết lập - kiểm soát tốt chất lượng

Dry and liquid feed mixing technology is also established, ensuring good quality control. Feed is stored in independent silos managed by software.

 

In addition to a precision feeding system (by group, individual, productivity, etc.) and the use of automation, chip technology, and other technologies to help identify individuals, create conditions for individuals to consume easily absorbed food, and maximize the productivity of each individual, the feed formula has been detailed for each micronutrient (vitamins, amino acids, absorbed micronutrients, etc.) for each livestock object.

Precision Farm Housing Technology

Investors, when constructing/investing in farm housing technology, consider natural points, regional climates, and livestock targets to optimize costs (investment, management, operation), and strictly manage (herd, bran, etc.). Improving animal welfare-is one of the necessary requirements for requesting foreign capital and export. Whatever the technology, it must, nevertheless, be simple to use, safe to use (both in terms of labor and biosafety), easy to maintain or troubleshoot basic issues, and able to guarantee efficient production.

 
Mô hình hệ thống chuồng trại tích hợp đa công nghệ.

Multi-technology integrated barn system

 

The latest innovations in barn design encompass a wide range of advanced technologies. It is an amalgamation of several technologies (automation, robots, AI, camera, etc.). A modern barn can: (i) control or filter incoming air, including many types of viruses, (ii) regulate humidity, microclimate, and multi-dimensional ventilation (which helps pigs grow quickly, eat a lot of food, and maintain good health); (iii) have an alarm system, an emergency opening, and mechanical ventilation in the event of a power outage; (iv) possess software (cloud computing, real-time data, data analysis); (v) use cameras to identify sick pigs or weigh or count them; (vi) Use meters, air distribution plates, and a system-cleaning robot to clean the farming barn’s air of gas emissions, pathogens, and dust; (vii) control the amount and caliber of food and drink served.

Technology for waste management

For livestock farmers, waste treatment—especially organic solid waste—is currently their top concern. To build a waste treatment system from the ground up, one must: (i) adhere to all standards and laws pertaining to the livestock environment (biosafety, odors, source reduction, etc.); (ii) minimize investment costs; (iii) turn waste into more valuable resources and raw materials; and (iv) create a livestock ecosystem that is environmentally friendly and promotes a circular economy and sustainable development. Although there are numerous waste treatment technologies available, the model below is still frequently and successfully used in Vietnam’s current livestock farming environment.

 
Mô hình xử lý chất thải rắn.

Solid waste treatment model.

 

Conclusion

Entering the second livestock industrial revolution, pig farming demands professionalism, standards, quality, and other attributes to maintain healthy and competitive competition in both domestic and imported markets.

Thus, it is imperative to apply new technologies that boost product value and enhance livestock efficiency (by lowering labor costs, enhancing biosecurity, etc.). These technologies can help minimize labor, enhance biological safety, and achieve better efficiency in production. This is especially true for chain livestock systems (seed, feed, pre-processing/processing, etc.) that have been gradually developed or will soon be finished.

Năng suất cao - Hiệu quả - Bền vững

High productivity – Efficiency – Sustainability

 

However, new technologies simultaneously pose challenges for both small and medium-sized livestock farmers, encompassing investment costs, operational processes, and the need for technologically knowledgeable personnel. Therefore, participating in Livestock Vietnam 2024 – The 2nd International Exhibition and Conference for Livestock, Feed, Animal Health, Dairy and Meat Processing Industry, is considered the optimal platform for entrepreneurs to seize business expansion opportunities, explore the latest innovations, connect with key buyers, and gain a comprehensive understanding of market trends in the livestock industry.

Source: Nông nghiệp Việt Nam

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